Predictors of future microalbuminuria in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Egypt
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Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cair, Egypt
Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Misr University of Science and Technology (MUST), Giza, Egypt
Submission date: 2019-07-22
Final revision date: 2019-11-17
Acceptance date: 2019-11-19
Publication date: 2019-12-31
Arch Med Sci Atheroscler Dis 2019;4(1):286–297
The present study was designed to assess the validity and efficacy of urinary markers (NAG, RBP, transferrin, α1-microglobulin, and plasma homocysteine) as early predictors of microalbuminuria in diabetic nephropathy in children and adolescents with type-1 diabetes, and its relation with haemoglobin glycated (HbA1c), serum lipid profile, and blood pressure.

Material and methods:
This study is a follow-up study to the 2002 study by Salem et al. The present study included 35 type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) children and adolescents recruited from regular attendees of the specialised Diabetology Clinic, Children’s hospital, Ain Shams University, with previously measured urinary N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (13) or homocysteine (11) or transferrin (28) or α1-microglobulin (27) or retinol binding protein (13) as an early predictor of diabetic nephropathy in T1DM. Thirty-five patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were enrolled, and 24 patients were normoalbuminuric at baseline. The patients were tested for markers other than urinary microalbumin, to predict diabetic nephropathy and early renal impairment in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Regarding the metabolic control between the studied groups, we found that there is significant difference in HbA1c between the microalbuminuric patients and the normoalbuminuric patients. According to the number of positive markers of diabetic nephropathy, the only parameter that was higher in patients with more than one elevated marker was mean systolic blood pressure. Although mean diabetic blood pressure was higher, it was not statistically significant. Regarding to the predictability of urinary markers, urinary N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase is the most predictable marker with high sensitivity and specificity. The least sensitivity noticed was urinary RBP and the least specificity noticed was urinary α1-microglobulin.

Regarding the predictability of urinary markers, urinary NAG is the most predictable marker with both high sensitivity and specificity, with a sensitivity of 60%, specificity 75%, positive predictive value 60%, negative predictive value 75%, and a diagnostic accuracy of 0.58%. Urinary RBP is another marker with low sensitivity but high specificity. Urinary α1-microglobulin is a valid marker with high sensitivity but low specificity. Contrary to previous markers, plasma homocysteine has high specificity but low sensitivity.