Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular disease predispose to a more severe outcome of COVID-19
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Department of Pediatrics, Shanghai Xin Hua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
Department of Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Hospital, Jamshroo, Pakistan
Department of Medicine, Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam National Hospital, Pamplemousses, Mauritius
Department of Orthodontics, Affiliation: Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
Department of Medicine, University Iberoamericana UNIBE, School of Medicine, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
Department of Medicine, Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Punjab Medical, India
Department of Medicine, Bharati Vidyapeeth University Medical College and Hospital, Pune, India
Department of Medicine, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College, Punjab, India
Submission date: 2020-11-18
Final revision date: 2021-01-05
Acceptance date: 2021-01-07
Publication date: 2021-04-12
Arch Med Sci Atheroscler Dis 2021;6(1):30–39
the world is currently facing the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The total number of cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rising daily and no vaccine has yet been approved. While the pathophysiology behind the virus is still being studied, many possible several risk factors using small sample sizes have been found.

Material and methods:
We conducted a pooled analysis using several databases such as Medline, Scopus, Wangfang, Web of Science, Research Square, medrxiv, and Google Scholar to identify studies reporting severe and non-severe groups of COVID-19 patients. The odds ratios as well as the 95% confidence intervals for hypertension, diabetes, and cerebrovascular disease leading to severe COVID-19 were calculated using R-software.

Fifty-three articles were used for our analysis and they involved 30,935 confirmed cases of COVID-19 from several countries across the world. The odds ratio for severe COVID-19 in hypertensive patients, diabetics, and patients with a history of cerebrovascular disease was 2.58 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.16–3.08, from 53 studies), 2.17 (95% CI: 1.72–2.74, from 44 studies), and 2.63 (95% CI: 1.80–3.85, from 25 studies), respectively.

Our analysis confirms that patients with hypertension, diabetes, or cerebrovascular disease are at a higher risk of a severe outcome of COVID-19. It is thus vital for physicians to identify the main risk factors for a severe outcome of this disease.