STATE OF THE ART PAPER
Ketone bodies and the heart
 
More details
Hide details
1
1st Department of Internal Medicine & Diabetes Center, General Hospital of Piraeus “Tzaneio”, Piraeus, Greece
2
Christeas Hall Research Laboratory, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
3
First Department of Propaedeutic Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, “Laiko” University Hospital, Athens, Greece
Submission date: 2021-07-23
Final revision date: 2021-10-21
Acceptance date: 2021-10-21
Publication date: 2021-12-30
 
Arch Med Sci Atheroscler Dis 2021;6(1):209–214
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Ketone bodies are low chain organic substances with four carbon atoms, with β-hydroxybutyric acid and acetone being the main ketone bodies in blood circulation. Under physiological conditions their levels are low while during conditions of oxidative stress, such as exercise, fasting state and acute illness, ketone body levels are increased. Recent findings have shown that in patients with heart failure their plasma concentration is increased. There is a positive correlation between increased energy metabolism of myocardial cells and the levels of β-hydroxybutyric acid and acetone. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that the mild ketosis caused by sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors is one of the possible pathogenetic mechanisms explaining the significant cardiovascular and renal benefits observed in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with these agents. The aim of the present review is to summarize the role of ketone bodies in both normal and pathological conditions, such as heart failure.
ISSN:2451-0629