Pulmonary complications following cardiac surgery
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Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Yazd Cardiovascular Research Centre, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
Department of Cardiology, Yazd Cardiovascular Research Centre, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical sciences, Yazd, Iran
Submission date: 2019-09-26
Acceptance date: 2019-10-24
Publication date: 2019-12-31
Arch Med Sci Atheroscler Dis 2019;4(1):280-285
Coronary heart disease is a common diseases of atherosclerosis. Despite the development of noninvasive therapies and the advancement of pharmacological methods and extensive drug regimens, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is still the ultimate treatment option in many patients. Among the various complications following open heart surgery, one of the common difficulties is pulmonary complications associated with subsequent morbidity and mortality, which should be studied according to preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative factors. Preoperative factors include genetics, age, family history of pulmonary disease, smoking, coexisting disease, etc. Perioperative factors include surgical procedures like sternotomy incision, cardioplegia, and internal mammary artery harvesting; anaesthesia procedure effects like pulmonary collapse, maintenance drugs and morphine administration; and cardiopulmonary bypass pump by systemic inflammatory response syndromes. And finally, postoperative factors, especially mediastinitis and the role of nursing in the intensive care unit. Pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery include atelectasis, pleural effusions, pneumonia, pulmonary oedema, cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary embolism, phrenic nerve injury, pneumothorax, sternal wound infection, and mediastinitis, with different outbreaks in patients reported. Although the preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative factors play an important role in the occurrence of these complications, the preoperative factors, as factors that can be adjusted, should be considered more than the others and explained to the patient, and the preoperative patient’s assessment should be noted. Also, postoperative care with the goal of reducing infections and pulmonary complications should be addressed by the nursing team.
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