Association of serum sialic acid concentration with diabetic complications and cardiovascular risk factors in an Indian population
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Department of Medicine, School of Medical Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India
Department of Oral Pathology, School of Dental Sciences, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India
Department of Medicine, MGM Medical College, Indore, India
Submission date: 2021-02-18
Acceptance date: 2021-03-24
Publication date: 2021-04-09
Arch Med Sci Atheroscler Dis 2021;6(1):14–17
Sialic acid (SA) is an acetylated product of neuraminic acid. It acts as a cofactor of many cell surface receptors (e.g. insulin receptors) and is positively associated with most of the serum acute phase reactants. Sialic acid is an important component of serum, which is elevated in diseases such as diabetes and certain malignancies. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with an increase in SA concentration along with other complications. The present study was undertaken to assess the relationship between serum SA and type 2 diabetes.

Material and methods:
A total of 200 type 2 DM patients, 145 males and 55 females, were included in the study. Also, 100 healthy individuals served as the control group. Parameters assessed included serum SA, lipid profile, urine microalbumin, LDL-C, lipoprotein(a), and serum fibrinogen. The relationship between serum SA and diabetic complications viz retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy was also assessed.

Type 2 DM patients had significantly higher levels (p < 0.01) of SA (77.35 ±4.6 mg%) as compared to the control group (68.23 ±7.9 mg%). Increased levels of serum SA were seen in patients with diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy. No correlation was seen between serum SA and diabetic neuropathy.

Elevated serum SA concentration is significantly related to type 2 DM and associated cardiovascular risk factors. Further study of acute-phase response markers and mediators as indicators or predictors of diabetic microvascular complications is therefore justified.