Vitamin D status and cardiometabolic risk factors in Greek adolescents with obesity – the effect of vitamin D supplementation: a pilot study
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Department of Child Health, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece
Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece
Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece
Submission date: 2020-03-11
Final revision date: 2020-04-21
Acceptance date: 2020-04-21
Publication date: 2020-05-22
Arch Med Sci Atheroscler Dis 2020;5(1):64–71
Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors as well as decreased 25(OH) vitamin D serum levels. We aimed to study 25(OH) vitamin D levels in adolescents with obesity compared with normal weight controls in association with CVD risk factors, and the possible effect of vitamin D supplementation.

Material and methods:
In a cross-sectional study, 69 obese and 34 normal-weight adolescents were included. In an interventional study 15 adolescents with obesity and vitamin D insufficiency were given 2000 IU vitamin D per os daily for 3 months.

Adolescents with obesity had significantly lower 25(OH) vitamin D levels compared with normal-weight controls (12.0 (3.0–36.0) vs. 34.0 (10.0–69.0) ng/ml, respectively, p < 0.001). In adolescents with obesity, 25(OH) vitamin D was inversely associated with leptin even after adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (r = –0.340, p = 0.009). Conversely, 25(OH) vitamin D was not related with other parameters, such as BMI, blood pressure, lipids, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index, adiponectin, leptin/adiponectin ratio, and visfatin levels. Following supplementation in 15 vitamin D insufficient adolescents with obesity, 25(OH) vitamin D significantly increased (from 17.3 (12.5–27.8) to 32.6 (14.3–68.0) ng/ml, p = 0.005) and so did low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (from 85.4 ±9.5 to 92.1 ±15.8 mg/dl, p = 0.022), while there were reductions in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (from 5.8 ±0.2 to 5.5 ±0.1%, p = 0.03) and leptin (from 19.7 (7.8–45.5) to 15.1 (4.3–37.3) ng/ml, p = 0.03). Oxidised LDL, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and urine isoprostanes remained unchanged.

Adolescents with obesity had lower 25(OH) vitamin D, which may be associated with higher leptin levels. Vitamin D supplementation may lead to HbA1c and leptin reductions, but also to an increase in LDL-C.