Vascular parkinsonism and vascular dementia are associated with an increased risk of vascular events or death
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Submission date: 2017-06-01
Acceptance date: 2017-06-10
Publication date: 2017-06-23
Arch Med Sci Atheroscler Dis 2017;2(1):16–23
Introduction: The natural course of vascular parkinsonism (VaP) and dementia (VaD) due to cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is not well known. The aim of this single-center study was to evaluate the long-term risk of vascular events, death and dependency in patients with VaP or VaD and to compare it with patients without cerebrovascular disease but with high atherothrombotic risk.
Material and methods: Seventy-eight consecutive, functionally independent patients with MRI features of SVD and with recently diagnosed VaD (n = 50) and VaP (n = 28) and 55 controls (control group – CG) with high 10-year risk of total cardiovascular disease (SCORE ≥ 5%) were prospectively recruited and followed for 24 months.
Results: Patients with SVD had lower prevalence of coronary artery disease compared with the CG (20.5% vs. 40%; p = 0.02) but similar prevalence of other atherothrombotic risk factors including mean age (73.7 ±7.3 vs. 72 ±5.9 years, p = 0.09). All outcomes were worse in SVD patients than controls. Thirty-one percent of SVD patients (34% of VaD vs. 25% of VaP, p = 0.45) experienced vascular events or died compared to 6% of controls (p < 0.01). After adjustments for potential confounders (age, sex, vascular risk factors), patients with VaP (HR = 7.5; 95% CI: 1.6–33; p < 0.01) and VaD (HR = 8.7; 95% CI: 2.1–35; p < 0.01) had higher risk of vascular events or death and death or dependency (respectively; HR = 3.9; 95% CI: 0.83–18.8; p = 0.07 and HR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.1–19.7; p = 0.03).
Conclusions: Patients with VaP or VaD due to SVD had significantly higher risk of vascular events, death and dependency compared to controls with high cardiovascular risk and without cerebrovascular disease.